Volume VIII, Network Intelligence Studies
Issue 15
Elena-Sabina TURNEA
 

The complexity of working time management has led in time to the need of using the concept “Full Time Equivalent” (FTE). Whether it is about planning services or physical production, one FTE is the equivalent of eight hours of work per day for an employee in a month. Each activity can be managed through a certain number of FTEs per month. Starting from this unit of measure, whether one has full-time or part-time employees, working time is brought to the same common denominator (for example: one needs 12 FTEs per month). This paper presents a measurement of a working process based on FTEs, which is an increasingly used practice in corporations. It describes the methodology for a particular activity that conducted to a specific time for each step of the entire process of work, and then the required FTEs is calculated according to this data. Since there are differences between the required FTEs according to the actual measurements of the process and the number of FTEs from the previous year according to the workload, possible arguments for these differences are discussed. Finally, there are highlighted the time-consuming steps in order to make the working process more efficient.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 19th March, 2020
  • Keywords: Full Time Equivalent; Working process; Employees; Optimization;
  • Pages: 7-15
  • Received: 27th December, 2019
  • Final revision and acceptance: 18th March, 2020
Volume VIII, Network Intelligence Studies
Issue 15
Gabriella KOSZORÚS, Tibor TARNÓCZI
 

The study includes an analysis of selected listed companies in five countries, the Visegrád countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia) and Romania. The main purpose of the research was to compare the performance of individual countries and to identify the key factors affecting the Market Capitalization / Equity ratio. Financial indicators (profitability and market indicators) were used to analyse countries' performance, and comparisons were made using variance analysis. There was a wide variation in the ratios within and between countries. The analysis also shows that the performance of companies is very different. Considering panel regression is performed, there are groups in which none of the explanatory variables is significant.There are three indicators that most often influence the value of the dependent variable: ROA, ROE, and Debt Ratio.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 19th March, 2020
  • Keywords: Stock exchange; Financial performance; Quantile panel regression;
  • Pages: 17-25
  • Received: 10th February, 2020
  • Final revision and acceptance: 18th March, 2020
Volume VIII, Network Intelligence Studies
Issue 15
Omar SALEM
 

The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of Education and Internet users indicators on the Unemployment rate in two specific periods: 2016 and 2018. This study used Cross-sectional analyses to analyze data for two given years (2016 and 2018) by using multiple linear regression methods using SPSS software. The stepwise selection method was used to choose the variables. As the study indicates, there is no impact of Education index and Internet users index on the Unemployment rate in two given periods (2016 and 2018). The research implication of this study is that the data of 23 European Union countries have used to be analyzed in just two specific years (2016 and 2018).

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 13th April, 2020
  • Keywords: Education index; Internet users index; Unemployment rate; European Union; Human development index;
  • Pages: 27-33
  • Received: 19th January, 2020
  • Final revision and acceptance: 12th April, 2020
Volume VIII, Network Intelligence Studies
Issue 15
Carmen CIORNEA
 

Very few historical moments are inevitable. However, the generalized war that shook the foundations of Europe again, represented, apparently paradoxically, the favorable context for some people to fully realize that everyday experience – regardless of the rhythm of their lives – only makes sense if it shapes them spiritually. Among them was also Sandu Tudor, who, at the end of the Second World War, sharpened his need to consolidate the contents of the assimilated orthodox mystical tradition, which was, in his vision, an efficient way of preserving humanity. It is well-known that the proclamation of the Romanian communist state was equivalent to the introduction of the new wave of repression against the Orthodox believers and, in particular, the mystics, so that in 1948 it resulted in the arrest of many members of the Rugul Aprins (The Burning Bush), especially among the students. In these circumstances, wishing to keep them from the roll of the anticipated communist oppression, Patriarch Justinian ordered, after 1948, the removal of Fathers Benedict Ghiuș, Sofian Boghiu and Arsenie Papacioc, but also of the founder of the Rugul Aprins – Sandu Tudor, a fact which did not escaped the watchful eye of the Securitatea (Security). In this context, as the world became more and more feared because the atheist communist offensive against the Church slowly became visible, Monk Agaton Tudor, becoming the abbot of the Crasna Monastery, continued his spiritual mission, credibly pleading (hence the popularity) for a doctrine other than the accepted one (communist ideology).

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 5th February, 2020
  • Keywords: Sandu Tudor; Alexandru Teodorescu; Monk Agaton; Christian mission; The Burning Bush
  • Pages: 35-43
  • Received: 24th December, 2019
  • Final revision and acceptance: 1st February, 2020
Volume VIII, Network Intelligence Studies
Issue 15
Narmin BAGHIRZADE
 

Welfare states are results of the dysfunctionality of markets. The relationship between a state and a market can decide the size and the range of a welfare state. For political and institutional economists this is a quite interesting topic, in terms of differences between economic and political institutions across the world. Starting from the Bismarckian policies, welfare states are providing people with economic development and prosperity. It took time, nearly a century, to apply all of the components of welfare states to the global economy, but in the end, it gave the fruits. Likewise, recent surveys show that these components are attractive for Europeans, for example, universal access to education, healthcare, social security, and others. Even if there are numerous theories about the retrenchment of a welfare state, on the contrary, it continues to increase and expand the range. However, will it maintain the development in the future? With the Swedish case, it can be shown that, even if this question still needs much more time and investigation, one aspect is clear: a welfare state is on a solid basement and it will continue to grow.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 14th April, 2020
  • Keywords: Welfare state; Sweden; Comparative Analysis;
  • Pages: 45-55
  • Received: 19th January, 2020
  • Final revision and acceptance: 13th April, 2020
Volume VIII, Network Intelligence Studies
Issue 15
László SEER
 

As a consequence of digitalization, several consumer products and services are already functioning as artificial intelligence empowered systems, such as virtual assistants, smart homes and other Internet-of-Things services. These intelligent systems are gradually obtaining agency, autonomy and authority by which can have complex interactions with their environment. In the interaction between these systems and their human consumers the question of the need for consumer autonomy also arises. This research assesses the possible factors determining consumer autonomy, and decision mechanisms influencing the need for more or less individual autonomy in the consumers’ interactions with an intelligent system. Qualitative methodology is used based on the multistage interpretation of six in-depth clinical interviews. Results seem to confirm some facilitating and inhibiting factors of the need for consumer autonomy. The main result consists of the evidence regarding the presence of continuous evaluation and decision-making mechanism of consumers about their need for autonomy in the interaction with an intelligent system.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 8th May, 2020
  • Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Consumer autonomy; Decision making;
  • Pages: 57-69
  • Received: 24th April, 2020
  • Final revision and acceptance: 7th May, 2020
Volume VIII, Network Intelligence Studies
Issue 15
Donika MALOKU, Krisztián KOVACS, Reuf SHKODRA
 

This study aimed to analyze the economic statement of the poultry egg sector in Kosovo. According to the Agency for Agricultural Development (AAD), in Kosovo are registered 56 poultry egg farms, and most of them are small size farms. A sample of 21 poultry egg farms was selected, based on a systematic selection. Data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire using a face-to-face interview with farmers in the poultry egg sector in the territory of Kosovo. The findings show that poultry egg production in Kosovo is profitable. It can be concluded that farms were cost-effective and lucrative as a result. Results show that medium-size farms (10,000 – 50,000 laying hens) had higher ROA and ROS then small size (up to 10,000 laying hens) and large size farms (more than 50,000 laying hens). However, large size farms had a higher cost-benefit ratio and net profit margin. It is recommended that farmers should improve farm buildings, make better management practices and have more control in the animal feed supply. Lastly, farmers' access to the financial market is limited and due to its importance it should be addressed by policymakers and financial institutions.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 23rd May, 2020
  • Keywords: Kosovo; Egg production; Laying hens; Profitability;
  • Pages: 71-79
  • Received: 19th April, 2020
  • Final revision and acceptance: 22nd May, 2020
Volume VIII, Network Intelligence Studies
Issue 15
Mihaela TĂNASE
 

The current business environment is overwhelmed by the progress of technology, the increasing and dynamic expectations of customers and the competitive landscape. Continuous innovation has become necessary an imperative for the majority of companies regardless of their sector of activity. Leadership is an important factor that influences the attitudes and behaviors of subordinates with respect to organizational goals. Leadership creates visions, supports to build relationships and increases the interest of subordinates. However, transformational leadership involves the creative and innovative aspects of employees and organizations. Transformational leadership provides self-confidence to subordinates, increases intrinsic motivation, inspiration, and supports innovation, personal development, and social relationships among employees. The influence of leadership on innovation within organizations is an extremely important subject, a feature which will remain relevant in the future of the company. Therefore, the question of the research is: Can a complex causal relationship be established between the influence of leadership on innovation? The purpose of the research is to create a model that highlights the precise transformational leadership components which influence innovation at the individual and organizational level.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 20th June, 2020
  • Keywords: Leadership; Innovation; Managers; Transformational Leadership;
  • Pages: 81-89
  • Received: 11th May, 2020
  • Final revision and acceptance: 19th June, 2020
Volume VIII, Network Intelligence Studies
Issue 16
Fahed WAHDANI, Mohammad ALFAOURI, Osama ALBGUOR
 

The conflict between main stakeholders, domain names owners & trademark holders, dominated cyberspace going beyond individual stakeholders into digital economy. As a turning point to resolve this conflict, UDRP existed as central device to solve this conflict with giving the parties freedom to go to court as alternative way to solve this conflict. In this regard, as the most of conflict cases were involved in bad faith matter, the national court has to be able to deal with bad faith matter according to the civil procedure law. In line with this, this study will try to find if the new Hungarian procedure law would be able to deal with domain names’ conflict based on bad faith matter.

  • Type: Original Research
  • Published on: 30th June, 2020
  • Keywords: Bad faith matter; UDRP; Code of civil procedure; RDNH; WIPO;
  • Pages: 103-111
  • Received: 16th May, 2020
  • Final revision and acceptance: 29th June, 2020
Volume VIII, Network Intelligence Studies
Issue 16
Ștefan CATANĂ, Cătălin V. GRĂDINARU, Sorin-George I. TOMA
 

In nowadays society, entrepreneurs play an essential role in thinking about new visionary businesses and in their long-term development. Presenting successful business models is essential to understanding the sustainable businesses, as well as to inspire new entrepreneurs. The goals of the paper are to define the concept of visionary entrepreneur and to present the case of Sam Walton, one of the famous American entrepreneurs. The methodology was based on a quantitative research method and a case study. The paper underlines the mentality and the spirit of the successful entrepreneur and his vision about business, in general, and, especially, about retailing. The paper contributes to a better understanding of the concept of “visionary entrepreneur”. Also, it shows that Sam Walton was one of the most important entrepreneurs worldwide.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1st August, 2020
  • Keywords: Visionary entrepreneur; Sam Walton; Wal-Mart; Company;
  • Pages: 113-117
  • Received: 15th July, 2020
  • Final revision and acceptance: 31th July, 2020
Volume VIII, Network Intelligence Studies
Issue 16
Ketrin SZIKSZAI-NÉMETH
 

The mechanism by which influencer marketing has emerged as a concept is far from new. In the world of advertising, where almost every minute the people are faced with an advertisement, people are becoming more immune to the traditional promotions. Influencer marketing is an excellent alternative for this issue, where the entities formulate and publish the message themselves. Due to the fact that opinion leaders may appear accessible in the eyes of followers, associating a brand with positively evaluated opinion leaders results a positive attitude toward the brand. There are factors which establish a fruitful cooperation between the parties, but they are hard to recognise, and even the researchers have different standpoint, for example with the number of the followers. However, a fallible image, the brand-influencer fit, attractiveness can surely strengthen the effectiveness. And surprisingly it does not necessarily lead to a negative perception of the opinion leader if followers recognize that their post contains advertisement.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 1st August, 2020
  • Keywords: Advertising; Influencer marketing; Personal branding; Persuasion;
  • Pages: 119-124
  • Received: 14th July, 2020
  • Final revision and acceptance: 31th July, 2020
Volume VIII, Network Intelligence Studies
Issue 16
Péter BAJNAI, Péter POPOVICS
 

In recent decades, three major representatives of the global eyeglass lens industry have established subsidiaries in the same Hungarian settlement, Mátészalka, which has a significant past and experience in the sector. The plants of the German Zeiss, the Japanese Hoya and the British Specsavers rely on the manufacturing, processing, framing and distribution of eyeglass lenses. The companies are direct competitors of each other in terms of both sales and labour market. The following analysis presents these companies based on various indicators such as net sales revenue, after-tax profit, ROS and ROA indices, number of employees, average wage and productivity, consumer awareness and brand loyalty. It also reveals differences in size, performance, and profitability among the organizations. Hoya's plant stands out in various respects due to its prominent position and dynamic development within the company group. Zeiss seems to be coming to a halt, its performance has declined in comparison to Hoya in recent years, its position within the group is weaker than that of its competitor. Specsavers carries out activities of lower profitability in its local plant; therefore, it can be less profitable than its competitors.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 13th August, 2020
  • Keywords: Profitability; Eyeglass lens industry; Consumer brand awareness; Cluster; Operational efficiency; ROS and ROA indexes;
  • Pages: 125-134
  • Received: 14th July, 2020
  • Final revision and acceptance: 12th August, 2020
Volume VIII, Network Intelligence Studies
Issue 16
Ali M. M. S. ALAJMI
 

In industrial companies, business strategy enhances the reward policy. In other words, the surrounding internal and external factors impact it. This essay focuses on three areas: pay industrial relation differentials, how pay determination relates to the labour market and organizational pay strategies, and how other institutions, such as trade unions and states, determine pay. In industrial relations, the various pay determination systems and structures must be understood and linked to worker pay methods, pay distribution across the labour market and employer attitude in recruiting and retaining employees. Controversies relating to pay negotiations have emerged due to concerns among employees, employers, trade unions and the state. Employers have created pay strategies, including pay grading systems, time and performance-based payment structures, to increase production and organizational performance and boost their managerial right to control. Nevertheless, those pay policies have faced barriers in accomplishing manager objectives since labour market costs remain challenging to quantify and measure. This essay outlines employee expectations and their response to employer pay decisions and whether job satisfaction or dissatisfaction affects productivity, motivating or demotivating workers. It presents the negotiations exercised individually or collectively with trade unions. Finally, this essay demonstrates how some pay policies, such as time-based pay structure, are easy to form, whereas other ones, such as performance-based structures, are not so easy to develop.

  • Type: Case Study
  • Published on: 4th October, 2020
  • Keywords: Employee compensation; Trade unions; Pay negotiation; Collective bargaining;
  • Pages: 135-139
  • Received: 14th July, 2020
  • Final revision and acceptance: 3rd October, 2020
Volume VIII, Network Intelligence Studies
Issue 16
Gergő KUN
 

In this study, the author gives an overview on the current situation of the industrial parks established in the county seats of the Northern Great Plain region, how the demand for these facilities developed after the change of regime, and what regional development and industrial development policy initiatives affected the structure. The company-level mapping of the examined industrial parks has been processed, just like the analysis of the financial and employment data of the settled companies within these facilities. The author also gives an overview about the Modern Cities Program, what this program can offer to the Northern Great Plain region county seats, especially in case of industrial development projects.

  • Type: Review Article
  • Published on: 11th November, 2020
  • Keywords: Industrial development; Policies; Industrial parks; Modern Cities Program;
  • Pages: 141-155
  • Received: 20th October, 2020
  • Final revision and acceptance: 10th November, 2020